& Past Highlights
Dr. Zohreh Parsa
Neutrino Physics, started CPV, LBN/LBNE studies in 1998.
This page include part of her collaborative work.
Neutrino Physics, etc.; Awarded J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical
Particle Physics (2002)
||Dr. Nicholas Samios
Early measurements of neutrino electron
elastic scattering etc.; Awarded Gian Carlo
Wick Gold Medal (2009)
Davis Awarded 2002 Physics Nobel Prize for detecting Solar Neutrinos!
Dr. Maurice Goldhaber
Experiment, revealed ν's
to be left-handed, property known as "spin"
Awarded National Medal of Science.
Melvin Schwartz Awarded Nobel Prize for
Discovery of the Muon-Neutrino (1988).
Physics & Experiment
Neutrino physics has had an interesting history. In 1930 Dr.
Pauli postulated the existence of the (electron) neutrino, in
1956 this was confirmed by Drs.
Reines and Cowan using a nuclear
reactor source of antineutrinos. In 1962, a second
distinct (muon) neutrino was shown to exist in a BNL experiment. For
that discovery Nobel Prize was awarded to Drs.
Schwartz and Steinberger. In 1995, the third, (tau) neutrino was
detected at FNAL. In parallel, Dr. Ray Davis' studies of solar
neutrinos confirmed understanding of stellar dynamics modulo
a 2/3 flux deficit that later was recognized as a result of
ν oscillations among the three flavors of neutrinos.
properties of those oscillations were further unveiled with
followup solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino
studies . The discovery of oscillations, detection
of 19 neutrino events from supernova 1987a by the old IMB and
Kamiokande water cerenkov detectors confirmed the theory of
supernova explosions. The WMAP experiment has started to see
imprints of neutrino mass effects on the cosmic microwave
background radiation left from the Big Bang.
In 1998 Dr. Zohreh Parsa started the Neutrino /CP
Violation studies, that envisioned sending a very intense neutrino beam
from Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York
through the earth to a (Long Baseline L, 1200 km < L < 4000 km) far away
underground multipurpose large detector capable of: making precision measurements
of all the (ν) neutrino oscillation parameters providing a
major advance in ν science; search for
proton decay; and observation of natural sources of neutrinos such as
The key to this approach is a very long distance. Length (L) of the Baseline defines the
physics you can do, once chosen, can not be
changed without establishing a complete new facility.
By measuring muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino
appearance, such a project would be capable of determining
all 3 generation mixing angles, mass hierarchy,
along with magnitude of the
CP violation (e.g.by measuring CKM phase &
explicitly observing differences in the muon neutrino and
muon anti-neutrino oscillations). No existing
experiment so far
has such capability.
Very Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment
Using a wide band muon neutrino beam from BNL to
a 2540 km underground ( 0.5 megaton water Cherenkov) detector at Homestake gold Mine in
South Dakota was one of our first study for "very Long Baseline (underground detector)
Neutrino Experiment" (LBNE).
Potentials of intense neutrino beams from BNL & FNAL to underground Detectors
at Homestake, SD; Henderson and Cascades, WA were also
studied as competition
for Deep Underground Science and Engineering
Laboratory Site increased. Later Homestake was
Dr. Mann, U.Penn. was the first, (in person, phone
calls, and messages persistently), to ask Dr. Parsa to
consider the "Homestake Mine" (for her far away
underground Detector site 2,540 km to BNL neutrino
He and others were interested in the results and
worked hard to get funding for the Processing of the
Drs. Marciano (2001), Kahn, McDonald (Princeton) and later Drs. Samios, M. Diwan and others
became interested in the very "Long Baseline Neutrino
Experiment" (LBNE) that could
search for CP violation in the lepton sector and
precision studies of the neutrino mixing matrix and more.
Interest for LBNE in U.S. with neutrino source at BNL to a far Detector
L=2540 km away at Homestake, S.D. grew. But after over a decade,
possibility of LBNE with source at BNL became less likely, due to years of NSF/ and DOE
funding delays, etc. LBNE collaboration (Physics, Beam,
Detector, etc., groups and studies with U.S. and International
members) continued to grow. Example of our earlier LBNE simulations are
given below. Reload Firefox for more Figs. or if blank.
Fig.1 (Top Fig) Variation of
parameters, e.g. variation of L (Baseline) distance from ν
source to the detector, in Probability vs Energy
plots. Fig.2 (Lower Fig) CP Phase Variations, in
Probability vs Energy plots.
Fig. 3 Shows BNL, FNAL and 3 possible DUSEL
Detector Sites, Homestake (SD), Henderson (CO), and
Fig. 4 Shows Super-Kamiokande
is 50-kiloton water Cherenkov
detector, filled with wate photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on its walls.
LBNE (Reconfiguration) with ν source at FNAL
Using a high intensity accelerator neutrino beam
from Fermilab (FNAL) to a (L=1287.475 km=800 miles baseline) liquid
detector at SURF (Homestake) is the LBNE
reconfiguration. The goals for this program are
determination of leptonic CP violation, the neutrino
mass hierarchy, and underground physics.
On Dec 10, 2012, DOE granted Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) approval
to the first phase of LBNE, which includes construction of a neutrino
beamline at Fermilab (where the neutrino beam would travel through 800
miles of earth to a (near-surface) far detector at Sanford Lab in
Lead, S.D. For Proposed LBNE Factsheet |click|
For Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) DOE's approval of CD-1 was an
important milestone after over decade of work.
May 22, 2014 - P5 Report recommended new international LBNF
(Long Baseline Neutrino Facility), with FNAL
as the host Lab, (see Left Tab for P5 Report, etc). Left Tabs provide more on LBNE
with beam from FNAL to a Detecor at
SURF; News, Reports etc.
March 2015 -- LBNE (Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) was changed to ELBNF
(Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility) at FNAL. ELBNF
new spokespersons in E-mail
thanked ELBNF/DUNE* (previously LBNE) collaboration,
[*DUNE is a new name for: "Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment"
]. Information will be posted under Tab 15 "LBNF/ DUNE" ...
Fig.5 BNL's Long Baseline
Neutrino Experiment Team (May 2014)
Fig. 6 Drs. Z. Parsa, W. Marciano and R. Wilson in Henderson
(Molybdenum Mine), was a proposed Underground Lab site in Co.
Neutrino (alias Neutrinos) updated:
1999-2014 Dr. Zohreh Parsa, Physics Dept. 510A, Brookhaven
National Lab, Upton NY 11973.
Past computer Assistant
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